Canto IV

 

Between two viands, equally removed

  And tempting, a free man would die of hunger

  Ere either he could bring unto his teeth.

 

So would a lamb between the ravenings

5  Of two fierce wolves stand fearing both alike;

  And so would stand a dog between two does.

 

Hence, if I held my peace, myself I blame not,

  Impelled in equal measure by my doubts,

  Since it must be so, nor do I commend.

 

10I held my peace; but my desire was painted

  Upon my face, and questioning with that

  More fervent far than by articulate speech.

 

Beatrice did as Daniel had done

  Relieving Nebuchadnezzar from the wrath

15  Which rendered him unjustly merciless,

 

And said: "Well see I how attracteth thee

  One and the other wish, so that thy care

  Binds itself so that forth it does not breathe.

 

Thou arguest, if good will be permanent,

20  The violence of others, for what reason

  Doth it decrease the measure of my merit?

 

Again for doubting furnish thee occasion

  Souls seeming to return unto the stars,

  According to the sentiment of Plato.

 

25These are the questions which upon thy wish

  Are thrusting equally; and therefore first

  Will I treat that which hath the most of gall.

 

He of the Seraphim most absorbed in God,

  Moses, and Samuel, and whichever John

30  Thou mayst select, I say, and even Mary,

 

Have not in any other heaven their seats,

  Than have those spirits that just appeared to thee,

  Nor of existence more or fewer years;

 

But all make beautiful the primal circle,

35  And have sweet life in different degrees,

  By feeling more or less the eternal breath.

 

They showed themselves here, not because allotted

  This sphere has been to them, but to give sign

  Of the celestial which is least exalted.

 

40To speak thus is adapted to your mind,

  Since only through the sense it apprehendeth

  What then it worthy makes of intellect.

 

On this account the Scripture condescends

  Unto your faculties, and feet and hands

45  To God attributes, and means something else;

 

And Holy Church under an aspect human

  Gabriel and Michael represent to you,

  And him who made Tobias whole again.

 

That which Timaeus argues of the soul

50  Doth not resemble that which here is seen,

  Because it seems that as he speaks he thinks.

 

He says the soul unto its star returns,

  Believing it to have been severed thence

  Whenever nature gave it as a form.

 

55Perhaps his doctrine is of other guise

  Than the words sound, and possibly may be

  With meaning that is not to be derided.

 

If he doth mean that to these wheels return

  The honour of their influence and the blame,

60  Perhaps his bow doth hit upon some truth.

 

This principle ill understood once warped

  The whole world nearly, till it went astray

  Invoking Jove and Mercury and Mars.

 

The other doubt which doth disquiet thee

65  Less venom has, for its malevolence

  Could never lead thee otherwhere from me.

 

That as unjust our justice should appear

  In eyes of mortals, is an argument

  Of faith, and not of sin heretical.

 

70But still, that your perception may be able

  To thoroughly penetrate this verity,

  As thou desirest, I will satisfy thee.

 

If it be violence when he who suffers

  Co-operates not with him who uses force,

75  These souls were not on that account excused;

 

For will is never quenched unless it will,

  But operates as nature doth in fire

  If violence a thousand times distort it.

 

Hence, if it yieldeth more or less, it seconds

80  The force; and these have done so, having power

  Of turning back unto the holy place.

 

If their will had been perfect, like to that

  Which Lawrence fast upon his gridiron held,

  And Mutius made severe to his own hand,

 

85It would have urged them back along the road

  Whence they were dragged, as soon as they were free;

  But such a solid will is all too rare.

 

And by these words, if thou hast gathered them

  As thou shouldst do, the argument is refuted

90  That would have still annoyed thee many times.

 

But now another passage runs across

  Before thine eyes, and such that by thyself

  Thou couldst not thread it ere thou wouldst be weary.

 

I have for certain put into thy mind

95  That soul beatified could never lie,

  For it is near the primal Truth,

 

And then thou from Piccarda might'st have heard

  Costanza kept affection for the veil,

  So that she seemeth here to contradict me.

 

100Many times, brother, has it come to pass,

  That, to escape from peril, with reluctance

  That has been done it was not right to do,

 

E'en as Alcmaeon (who, being by his father

  Thereto entreated, his own mother slew)

105  Not to lose pity pitiless became.

 

At this point I desire thee to remember

  That force with will commingles, and they cause

  That the offences cannot be excused.

 

Will absolute consenteth not to evil;

110  But in so far consenteth as it fears,

  If it refrain, to fall into more harm.

 

Hence when Piccarda uses this expression,

  She meaneth the will absolute, and I

  The other, so that both of us speak truth."

 

115Such was the flowing of the holy river

  That issued from the fount whence springs all truth;

  This put to rest my wishes one and all.

 

"O love of the first lover, O divine,"

  Said I forthwith, "whose speech inundates me

120  And warms me so, it more and more revives me,

 

My own affection is not so profound

  As to suffice in rendering grace for grace;

  Let Him, who sees and can, thereto respond.

 

Well I perceive that never sated is

125  Our intellect unless the Truth illume it,

  Beyond which nothing true expands itself.

 

It rests therein, as wild beast in his lair,

  When it attains it; and it can attain it;

  If not, then each desire would frustrate be.

 

130Therefore springs up, in fashion of a shoot,

  Doubt at the foot of truth; and this is nature,

  Which to the top from height to height impels us.

 

This doth invite me, this assurance give me

  With reverence, Lady, to inquire of you

135  Another truth, which is obscure to me.

 

I wish to know if man can satisfy you

  For broken vows with other good deeds, so

  That in your balance they will not be light."

 

Beatrice gazed upon me with her eyes

140  Full of the sparks of love, and so divine,

  That, overcome my power, I turned my back

 

And almost lost myself with eyes downcast.